The microanalysis of metals.

The microanalysis is often used for the reason establishment of the various details destruction during operation.

The microscopic analysis consists in a research of the metal structure at large increases with the help of the microscope. The observed structure is called a microstructure.

The microanalysis allows you to explain in many cases the reasons of the slots properties change depending on change of the chemical composition and conditions of processing. The useful increase determined by conditions of diffraction of light can’t be more than 1500 times. At such increase, it is possible to find out elements of structure not less than 0.2 microns in size that, in most cases, it is enough for determination of the sizes of many phases which are present at slots. To reveal perhaps linear defects of crystals – dislocations, excess phases, carbides distribution, they wouldn’t have the form. The microanalysis doesn’t allow you to characterize structure of no equilibrium slot when phases are inseparable from the main phase and when they are too small. In this case, the research by means of an electronic microscope or a x-ray method of a research is necessary. It is possible to determine the size of grains in slots by a metalgraphic microscope. The microanalysis is widely applied to reason establishment of the detail destruction during operation. For this purpose cut out a sample near the place of destruction and far from it to define deviations from the slot structure. For thinner research of the metal structure the electronic microscope giving increase up to 100000 times is used. At the same time particles of 10-3 microns in size are considered and for this purpose prepare a foil or molds. The thinnest method of the research is the X-ray diffraction method based on diffraction of X-rays on a selective deviation of particles at hit of X-rays on it. Each metal gives the system of lines certain intensity on the roentgenogram. Having established the width of lines establishes the physical nature of phases.

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